CSD(Chemical Solution Deposition)materials (MOD materials、Sol-gel materials)

While expectations for the diversification and increased sophistication of functional ceramic thin film are increasing, coating materials are extremely valuable as research materials for initial characterization and evaluation and for exploring possibilities.

The biggest merit of thin film fabrication using coating materials is the low cost of the materials, manufacturing equipment and facilities. The low cost of film-forming using dip coating, for instance, is unrivaled among other methods. As a manufacturer of various types of liquid materials for semiconductors, Kojundo Chemical, which has grown steadily to obtain a significant share of the market, develops and manufactures other high-quality coating materials using alcoholates for raw material. Since we develop our products in particularly close collaboration with semiconductor device manufacturers and corporations in related industries, we have extensive experience in everything from materials for research and development to mass production materials.

Characteristics of our coating materials

Kojundo Chemical offers two main product groups: Sol-gel materials and MOD materials. Sol-gel materials are hydrolyzed alkoxides or similar materials that are polymerized, formed into colloids and dispersed in a solution. Since they do not contain polymeric materials such as organic acids, and the principal constituents of the solution are themselves precursors of ceramics, they are generally excellent for low-temperature film formation.
MOD coating materials are solutions of metallic organic compounds dissolved in organic solvent. This solution is applied to a substrate, and after it dries it is heated. This is a simple method of forming a thin oxide film.
Kojundo Chemical offers its own MOD coating materials, as well as EMOD coating materials from Symetrix Corporation.
The MOD coating materials from Kojundo Chemical offer particularly good wetting of the substrate, and they are prepared to enable simple application to all kinds of wafers, SiO2, glass and other substrates using methods such as spin coating, dip coating and so on. In addition, we have extensive experience in a range of customized products such as various single-metal oxides and compound oxides, and trace element doping among other products.
The EMOD (Enhanced Metal Organic Decomposition) materials offered by Symetrix Corporation of America can be mixed and combined in a variety of different compounds. Since coating materials are solutions, coating materials containing different elements can be prepared and mixed in any proportion of choice, thereby offering a greater degree of freedom in research. On the other hand, depending on the combinations mixed, precipitates may form or the viscosity may increase, making them unsuitable for practical application. EMOD materials were developed by Symetrix Corporation in the 1990s while Kojundo Chemical developed the process for mass producing these materials, ensuring regular high quality and developing a lineup of products. The coating materials are for making single-metal oxide films of each kind, and they are available for all the elements. Problems during mixing have been minimized, and they feature the ability to be mixed and prepared in most combinations. They have been used over the past dozen years or so in a wide range of research laboratories.

Quality of deposition

Generally, when using coating materials, there is a correlation between the quality of deposition of the thin film obtained and the coating materials or the conditions of use. Know-how concerning the coating and heat treatment and selection of the material and firing temperature have a strong influence on the quality of the deposition. Organic matter resolves at 400~600 deg C, while high quality crystallization is said to occur at about 600~800 deg C. Optimization should be possible if attention is paid to compound oxide thin films where the orientation of the crystal axis is considered to be an issue, as well as to the firing conditions and substrate material.

Method of use

There are two main methods of applying coating materials to substrates; the spin coating method and the dip coating method.

Spin coating method Dip coating method
スピンコート法The substrate is rotated and a solution of the coating material is dripped onto it. Centrifugal force spreads the liquid film across the substrate forming a uniform film. ディップコート法The substrate is immersed in a solution of the coating material and is then pulled out gently, forming a liquid film on the substrate.


It is possible to adjust the concentration of the coating using a dilution agent. You can use coating materials optimally suited to the desired application, concentration and coating method.
If you require coating materials that achieve excellent characteristics with compound oxide thin films formed with mixed preparations of EMOD coating materials, with optimal conditions that can obtain the stable characteristics and oxide composition required for commercial products, please contact our Sales Division. We carry out customization of coating materials for improved quality of deposition and the optimal concentration, mixing ratio, and additives to meet your needs.

Sol-gel type coating materials

Sol-gel type coating material

We also accept orders for development of other concentrations, compositions and other compound oxides.
Product name Composition Concentration (%) Product name Composition Concentration (%)
Si−05S SiO2 5 BS-05S SiO2-B2O3 5
PS-05S SiO2-P2O5 5 Ti-05-P TiO2 5
BPS-05S SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 5 Ti-03-P TiO2 3

MOD type coating materials

Representative examples of compound oxides

Product name Composition Concentration (%) Product name Composition Concentration (%)
PLZT-20 (PbLa)(ZrTi)O3 20 BST-06-P (BaSr)TiO3 6
PLZT-10 (PbLa)(ZrTi)O3 10 MT-05 MgTiO3 5
PZT-20 Pb(ZrTi)O3 20 PZ-20 PbZrO3 20
PZT-20(110/52/48) Pb(ZrTi)O3 20 ITO-05C In2O3-SnO2 5
PZT-10 Pb(ZrTi)O3 10 SZ-10-3 Y2O3-SnO2 3
PT-25 PbTiO3 25 LT-03 LiTaO3 3
PT-10 PbTiO3 10 YAG-03 Y2O3-Al2O3 3
ST-06 SrTiO3 6 LA-05 La2O3-Al2O3 5
BT-06 BaTiO3 6 ZC-03 ZnO-Cr2O3 3

Representative examples of Single-metal oxides

Product name Composition Concentration (%) Product name Composition Concentration (%)
Al-03-P Al2O3 3 Nd-03 Nd2O3 3
Ba-06C BaO 6 Ni-03 NiO 3
Bi-05 Bi2O3 5 Pb-05 PbO 5
Bi-10C Bi2O3 10 Pb-10C PbO 10
Ca-03 CaO 3 Pr-03 Pr2O3 3
Ce-03 CeO2 3 Sm-03 Sm2O3 3
Cu-03 CuO 3 Sn-05 SnO2 5
Co-03 CoO 3 Sn-10C SnO2 10
Cr-03C Cr2O3 3 Sr-06C SrO 6
Er-03 Er2O3 3 Ta-10-P Ta2O5 10
Fe-03 Fe2O3 3 Tb-03C Tb2O3 3
Ga-03 Ga2O3 3 Ti-03 TiO2 3
Hf-05 HfO2 5 V-02 V2O5 2
In-05 In2O3 5 Y-03 Y2O3 3
La-03 La2O3 3 Yb-03 Yb2O3 3
Mg-03 MgO 3 Zn-05 ZnO 5
Mn-03 Mn2O3 3 Zr-05-P ZrO2 5
Nb-05 Nb2O5 5

Representative examples of EMOD

We also accept orders for development of other concentrations, compositions and other compound oxides.
Product name Composition Concentration (%) Product name Composition Concentration (%)
SYM-Al04 AlO1.5 0.4 SYM-MG05 MgO 0.5
SYM-B04 BO1.5 0.4 SYM-MN05 MnO1.5 0.5
SYM-BA05 BaO 0.5 SYM-NI05 NiO 0.5
SYM-BI05 BiO1.5 0.5 SYM-NB05 NbO2.5 0.5
SYM-CA05 CaO 0.5 SYM-PB05 PbO 0.5
SYM-CE03 CeO2 0.3 SYM-RB03 RbO0.5 0.3
SYM-CO04 CoO 0.4 SYM-SB03 SbO1.5 0.3
SYM-CR015 CrO1.5 0.15 SYM-SI05 SiO2 0.5
SYM-CS03 CsO1.5 0.3 SYM-SM02 SmO1.5 0.2
SYM-CU04 CuO 0.4 SYM-SN05 SnO2 0.5
SYM-DY01 DyO1.5 0.1 SYM-SR05 SrO 0.5
SYM-ER01 ErO1.5 0.1 SYM-TA05 TaO2.5 0.5
SYM-EU01 EuO1.5 0.1 SYM-TI05 TiO2 0.5
SYM-FE05 FeO1.5 0.5 SYM-Y01 YO1.5 0.1
SYM-HF04 HfO2 0.4 SYM-YB01 YbO1.5 0.1
SYM-IN02 InO1.5 0.2 SYM-W05 WO3 0.5
SYM-LA01 LaO1.5 0.1 SYM-ZN20 ZnO 2.0
SYM-LU03 LuO1.5 0.3 SYM-ZR04 ZrO2 0.4